Unitary Patent System

Until now, the long awaited Unitary Patent System, along with the proposed centralised European patent litigation system seemed like something of a distant reality. However, a number of recent developments have seen the System take one step closer to being brought into effect, and it is hoped that the first unitary patent will be registered in 2014.The Unitary Patent System and the European Unitary (EU) Patent:Part of the proposed system is the introduction of the European unitary (EU) patent. The proposed EU patent is closely related to, but different from the European patent, which is granted under the European Patent Convention. European patents, once granted, become a bundle of nationally enforceable patents, in the states designated by the applicant.At present, European patents (once granted) require validating in each EPO member state for which the patent proprietor seeks patent protection. Validation requires payment of the associated fees, and can require a full translation of the patent specification into the national, official language. Accordingly, validation can be costly, coupled with the need to appoint a national representative to act on applicant’s behalf. Further costs arise annually with renewal fees being payable in each member state in which the patent is validated.It is proposed that the new EU patent will, once granted and at the proprietor’s request, become a European patent having unitary effect. The application and examination procedure will be identical to that of European patents, until such time that the patent is granted. However, it will be during the post-grant phase that the process will differ, with the proprietor being presented with the opportunity to opt for a European unitary patent with unitary protection (in all member states participating in the system), instead of the usual European patent with individual territorial protection. The new process would also provide for the patent proprietor to combine both schemes, i.e. to request a European patent in a selection of member states party to the European Patent Convention and not of the unitary patent system (at the time of writing, of the 27 EU countries, only Italy and Spain are not party to the unitary patent system), and a unitary patent in those states party to the unitary patent system, thus providing the proprietor with much flexibility.The EU patent, if introduced, will provide proprietors with the benefit of a simplified validation procedure, as well as fewer translation and renewal requirements. It is further hoped that the new system will help in making patent protection more accessible, particularly to SMEs, and in making Europe more attractive to inventors, both those within Europe and across the world. The EU patent is awaited with much anticipation, as it has been since it was first discussed way back in the 1970s…The Centralised European Patent Litigation System (Unitary Patents Court):A second aspect of the proposed system is the introduction of a centralised European patent litigation system. The centralised system is intended to provide a mechanism by which patent proprietors will have greater legal certainty, particularly in relation to infringement and revocation proceedings concerning European patents (and the new European unitary patent). It is also hoped that a centralised system will significantly reduce patent litigation costs, eliminating the need to conduct litigation in each member state of interest (and under the current system, where the patent has been validated). And yet given the major advantages such a system would bring, it is the introduction of the centralised European patent litigation system that has stalled the introduction of the unitary patent system as a whole.The reasons for the delay are numerous, not least due to a decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) that the introduction of the European Unified Patent Court (a substantial part of the proposed system) would be incompatible with the European Union.The proposed Regulation on the creation of the unitary patent system may change as a result of this judgement, with the European Council (which represents the governments of the Member States of the European Union) suggesting a number of alterations in a recent statement, published on the 29 June 2012. The European Council recommended the deletion of three provisions, Articles 6 to 8 of the Regulation, which define the acts which constitute infringement of a unitary patent. Deletion of these Articles is thought to remove the possibility of the Unified Patent Court making referrals on substantive patent law to the CJEU. If these recommendations are adopted, the result will likely be that the CJEU will have no jurisdiction in UPC cases. Whether the CJEU adopts this is yet to be seen.The plans were further stalled on the issue of the location of a central divisional court. However a recent development appears to suggest that progress in respect of the introduction of a Unified Patent Court is gradually taking place. In its statement of 29 June 2012, the European Council also reported that the Unified Patent Court is to be headquartered in Paris. It further reported that the central court will be supported by two specialist courts residing in London (for pharmaceutical related cases) and Munich (for mechanical engineering cases). It has been suggested that the Unified Patent Court, if introduced, will have the jurisdiction to hear issues relating to European Patents granted under the European Patent Convention and also those patents granted under the new unitary right.The final decision now rests with the European Parliament, which in combination with the European Council forms part of the two-part legislative framework of the European Union. This too has been delayed, largely due to the recent announcement of the European Council, as set out above.The European Parliament was due to vote on the unitary system on the 4 July 2012, however, the vote was postponed while the European Parliament decides whether the CJEU can be excluded from the unitary system. It is not yet known when the European Parliament will vote on the introduction of the system. Until then, the launch of a unitary patent system hangs in the balance pending the approval of the European Parliament.

The Significance of Pure Air Inside Your Home

Have you ever climbed up mountains? If so, what do you do when you reach the top? Most people open their arms, close their eyes, and take a deep breath. That is the special thing about clean and fresh air. You feel like taking a pause and inhaling fresh air. Over the past year, we have faced several waves of coronavirus. These days, we have been warned about another wave of this virus. Therefore, the importance of clean air has been increasing day by day. In this article, we are going to find out why air quality is important when it comes to our indoor environment.

The impact of pollution on your indoor air

No matter where you go, you will have to face the consequences of poor quality. Even if you are alone in your home, you will still be prone to polluted air. Every year, more than 1 million people lose their life because of air pollution.

According to some reports, India is among the top 10 countries in the world with the worst air quality. The effect of polluted air is more evident as people spend over 90% of their time inside their homes. Another research study found that residents are at a greater risk of covid-19.

As a matter of fact, indoor air pollution has become an international concern. We can say that pollution levels inside and in closed spaces are up to five times higher. Since most pollutants are not visible to the naked eye, you may not be able to aware of the dangers of dirty air.

Indoor air pollutants may be generated by common household items, such as cleaning agents, cooking fuel, furniture polish, pet dander, and paint. Apart from this, domestic appliances such as refrigerators and heaters may also be the common source.

Since homes are not airtight, air pollutants can easily get in. For example, smog, smoke, mold spores, and dust can get into your house through your windows or doors. Air conditioners can be used to cool down your rooms. But the downside is that they can also boost the movement of pollutants across your house.

What can you do to purify your indoor air?

Basically, air purifiers are simple devices that receive dirty air and put it out after passing it through powerful filters. Nowadays, you can choose from hundreds of air purification units available in the market. They are based on a wide range of technologies. They are available in different sizes to cover rooms of different sizes.

Nowadays, most types of air purifiers depend on HEPA technology. Initially, this technology was introduced in the 40s in order to capture pollutants from the air. Although these filters have been used for the filtration of particulate matter, they may not be that effective when it comes to eliminating volatile organic compounds.

Therefore, if you are worried about your health, we suggest that you invest in a type of device that comes with a HEPA filter. With these units, filtering your indoor air will be a piece of cake. Therefore, you can count on these devices to and ensure clean air inside your house.

Shoe Repairs And Several Other Things When I Was 7

Shoe Repairs And Several Other Things When I Was 7
My Dad repaired most of our shoes believe it or not, I can hardly believe it myself now. With 7 pairs of shoes always needing repairs I think he was quite clever to learn how to “Keep us in shoe Leather” to coin a phrase!

He bought several different sizes of cast iron cobbler’s “lasts”. Last, the old English “Laest” meaning footprint. Lasts were holding devices shaped like a human foot. I have no idea where he would have bought the shoe leather. Only that it was a beautiful creamy, shiny colour and the smell was lovely.

But I do remember our shoes turned upside down on and fitted into these lasts, my Dad cutting the leather around the shape of the shoe, and then hammering nails, into the leather shape. Sometimes we’d feel one or 2 of those nails poking through the insides of our shoes, but our dad always fixed it.

Hiking and Swimming Galas
Dad was a very outdoorsy type, unlike my mother, who was probably too busy indoors. She also enjoyed the peace and quiet when he took us off for the day!

Anyway, he often took us hiking in the mountains where we’d have a picnic of sandwiches and flasks of tea. And more often than not we went by steam train.

We loved poking our heads out of the window until our eyes hurt like mad from a blast of soot blowing back from the engine. But sore, bloodshot eyes never dampened our enthusiasm.

Dad was an avid swimmer and water polo player, and he used to take us to swimming galas, as they were called back then. He often took part in these galas. And again we always travelled by steam train.

Rowing Over To Ireland’s Eye
That’s what we did back then, we had to go by rowboat, the only way to get to Ireland’s eye, which is 15 minutes from mainland Howth. From there we could see Malahide, Lambay Island and Howth Head of course. These days you can take a Round Trip Cruise on a small cruise ship!

But we thoroughly enjoyed rowing and once there we couldn’t wait to climb the rocks, and have a swim. We picnicked and watched the friendly seals doing their thing and showing off.

Not to mention all kinds of birdlife including the Puffin.The Martello Tower was also interesting but a bit dangerous to attempt entering. I’m getting lost in the past as I write, and have to drag myself back to the present.

Fun Outings with The camera Club
Dad was also a very keen amateur photographer, and was a member of a camera Club. There were many Sunday photography outings and along with us came other kids of the members of the club.

And we always had great fun while the adults busied themselves taking photos of everything and anything, it seemed to us. Dad was so serious about his photography that he set up a dark room where he developed and printed his photographs.

All black and white at the time. He and his camera club entered many of their favourites in exhibitions throughout Europe. I’m quite proud to say that many cups and medals were won by Dad. They have been shared amongst all his grandchildren which I find quite special.

He liked taking portraits of us kids too, mostly when we were in a state of untidiness, usually during play. Dad always preferred the natural look of messy hair and clothes in the photos of his children.